Background: Beneficial lifestyle changes are difficult to implement in overweight men at risk of diabetes.
Aim: Characterise levels of motivation and willingness to change, in relation to healthy lifestyle behaviours and testosterone concentrations.
Participants: T4DM (ACTRN12612000287831) sub-study comprising 366 men with waist circumference ≥95 cm, aged 50-74 with testosterone ≤14nmol/L, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)/newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes on oral glucose tolerance testing.
Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of motivation and behaviours, quality of life and physical activity via questionnaire, physical measurements and testosterone at baseline.
Results: On scale 1 (low)-10 (high) motivation was rated median 8 (interquartile range, IQR, 7-10) and willingness to change 9 (8-10). Men engaged in healthy activities for median 4 days (IQR 2-9) out of 14. Over a 14 day period, men engaged in moderate physical activities 6 days (3-10) and vigorous physical activities 2 days (1-5). Men engaged in quality time with friends or family 8.5 days (4-14), and in reading, puzzles, surfing the internet, watching TV/DVDs 14 days (10-14). Self-rated physical health (median 7/10, IQR 6-8) correlated with better quality of life by SF12 score (r=-0.56, p=<0.001). Engagement in moderate and vigorous physical activity correlated with Physical Activity questionnaire responses (r=0.59, p=<0.001; r=0.50, p=<0.001 respectively). Motivation correlated strongly with willingness (r=0.75, p=<0.001) and modestly with engagement in healthy behaviours (r=0.19, p=0.001). BMI correlated inversely with moderate physical activity (r=-0.20, p=0.0006). Testosterone did not correlate with motivation (r=-0.03, p=0.581) but correlated with engagement in healthy lifestyle activities (r=0.13, p=0.030) and vigorous physical activity (r=0.16, p=0.007).
Conclusions: T4DM participants with IGT/newly diagnosed diabetes self-report high motivation and willingness to change, but limited engagement with healthy lifestyle behaviours. Baseline testosterone is associated with healthy lifestyle activities and vigorous physical activity. Further research is needed to improve engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviours in men at risk of diabetes.